::The Crying Earth::

What have we done to the world. Look what we've done... What about all the peace. That you pledge your only son... What about all the dreams. That you said was yours and mine... Did you ever stop to notice? The crying Earth the weeping shores...

Environmental Disaster

Song by


Acoustic Torment

every day there are dying out
some species of animals and plants.
stop the environmental disaster,
only now we have a chance.




threatened creatures, dirty seas,
polluted atmosphere, dying trees.

Every day we are destroying
a part of this beautiful nature.
stop the ecocide now,
or we will have no future.





we invest millions of dollars
in science and mars exploration,
that we can leave this planet
when it is finally destroyed.
use the money for saving the environment,
this would be thousand times more efficient!



threatened creatures, dirty seas,
polluted atmosphere, dying trees.

stop the insanity! - stop the ecocide!
stop the indifference! - stop the suicide!



Global warming is a condition when our surrounding had an increasing in temperature rather than normal. This situation will make night becomes hotter than usual. This is happen because of human activities such are deforestation, industrial activity, open burning, smoke, exploration to forest that is for building projects and many more.

Mistakes that human did to the environment cause many negative effects. One of them is the melting phase in North Pole higher, sea level increase and the size of land becomes smaller. Besides that, natural earth disaster may occurred like flood and fire burning meanwhile human activities including death and injured.

Scientist and georaphyist decided that the main factors that lead to the global warming is decreasing of ozone layer that is causes by emission of gases especially chlorofluorocarbon (CFC).
Actually, issues of increasing temperature occurred causes of many factor. Other than ozone layer becomes more thin, haze, island of heat, acid rain and green house effect also give their contribution to the global warming.

Let’s take a look on how global warming occurs based on every process that is represent here.


Haze


Hazes happen when a lot of smoke, smug, dust and others because of human activities or naturally occur. This phenomenon can decrease the distance of our view. Moreover, haze can raise the number of disease. For example hard to breath.


Ozone Depletion


Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) that is the greatest contributors to this phenomenon. CFC gases can contains in air conditioning, aerosol and refrigerator. When the CFC gases is emitted to the atmosphere, chlorine can attack the ozone and released oxygen. Consequently, ozone layer becomes thinner. This situartion will make an ultraviolet ray reach up to the earth surface directly and give the bad effects to the human such as skin cancer and katarak.




Greenhouse Effects


Occurs when more energy is trapped in the atmosphere layer and discards the energy back to the atmosphere. Heat is reflected again to the earth, atmosphere are keep more heat and that is make our earth becomes more warmer. Greenhouse effects happen because increasing of emission of gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen monoxide and methane to the earth.




Urban Heat Island


This is one of phenomenon that is related to the increasing of heat in urban area compared to their surrounding. It’s happen when the emission of energy is higher and trapped by the higher building. Heat that is not released can damaged the surrounding.


Acid Rain


Factory released gases that are contains sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. The reaction of these gases with the water vapour in air will formed nitric acid and sulphuric acid. Then when raining takes place, it is called as acid rain.




As the precaution steps, the thing we can do are:
1. Switch off the electric.
2. Change the types of light that is suitable with the electrical energy.
3. Clean out the fan or light.
4. Use timer ( for AC, microwave, oven, magic jar, and many more ).
5. Plant trees in our house.
6. Hang cloth under the sun ray.
7. Use public transport.
8. Save the usage of papers.
9. “Say no to plastic”.


As a conclusion, we as people that live on this earth should take an action to decrease the global warming. The effects from this phenomenon will damaged the world systems because it can increase the sea level, changing of the glasier and biosphere also changing in weather pattern.

Reduction Of Disaster Impact


This phenomenon can be avoided by better construction, safety systems, early warning and evacuation planning, the term unnatural disaster is not unwarranted. Below is some of priorities action can do:

1. Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation.

2. Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning.

3. Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels.

  • Disasters can be substantially reduced if people are well informed and embrace a culture of prevention. Local communities often maintain vast traditional knowledge on environment and disasters.
  • Knowledge of the environmental dimensions of disaster needs to be made available for use in evidence-based analyses, public awareness, political advocacy, operational decisions and educational curricula.

4. Reduce the underlying risk factors.

  • Natural resource exploitation, urban development and environmental degradation all directly affect risk. Changes in weather intensities, circulation, hydrology, and sea level brought about by climate change have increased risk.
  • The loss of ecosystems services that regulate floods and fires increases the vulnerability of vast populations in densely populated coastal areas and flood plains.

5. Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels.

  • The coordination of evacuation, search and rescue operations, and provision of relief to survivors relies on contingency plans developed in advance of the disaster event and based on all available risk information


A poem about the climate change

By: Julia Melnikova, St. Petersburg, Russia



I don`t want my children to see the Earth die,

Without fish swim and without birds fly,

With no air for breathing, no water to drink,

When global conditions will make the land sink.

I don`t want emissions to stay in the air,

To fill our lungs and to spread everywhere,

To cause global warming, submerging the land!

To stop all this mess we should lend our hand!


The nature is dying together with us,

We wouldn`t exist here but for the green grass…

We must prevent nature from saying «farewell»

In case it is dying, we`re dying as well!


What could human beings` activities mean

To make our planet one big rubbish bin?!

No matter that you may be only a teen

It`s never too early or late to be green!


To show our children the beauty of life;

To help polar bears and pandas survive;

To claim to the world that this talk should gain weight

Let`s firstly take part in the global debate!














5.2.4 What are the impacts of climate change?






Climate change is already having many discernible impacts:

Melting Polar ice caps: The area of Arctic ice at the North Pole has shrunk by 10% in recent decades, and the thickness of the ice above the water has decreased by about 40%. On the other side of the world, parts of the ice sheet above the Antarctic continent have become unstable.



* Retreating glaciers:
It is likely that 75% of the glaciers in the Swiss Alps will disappear by 2050.

Rising sea levels: Over the last century sea levels have risen by between 12 and 22 cm and are projected to rise even more rapidly in the future.

Extreme weather: In the last decade, there were three times more weather-related natural catastrophes in the world than in the 1960s, including heat waves, floods, droughts and forest fires. All these types of events have a big human and economic cost.


Nature under threat: Many animals and plants will not be able to cope with higher temperatures and changes to their natural habitats.






How Environmental Disaster occur?


Many environmental disaster happen because of human errors such as flood, haze and land slide. This is because human would destructive the jungle and cut plant without deliberate environment situation also one of the coursed environmental disaster. Human activity such as throw away domestic waste and industrial waste like toxic also one of the factor which effort water pollution and flood.



Actually one of factor that flood and land slide is because our attitude when develop the residential area. This happen because many developments are builds at the hill especially for human residential. When it’s happen their structure land movement was disturbed, sowhen that area gains more rain, land movements become unusual. When this happen, land slide occur and sometime give flood suddenly because land will cover the irrigation. Like as tragedy in Highland Tower and Bukit Antarabangsa, this because urban process.


Example for haze is when air contaminated with other dangerous gases from transportation, industrial sector, and nuclear bomb. For example people who work with hazardous materials get training. They learn how to keep dangerous materials safely inside factories. But sometimes workers make mistakes. Dangerous materials get loose in the environment. Then these materials cause disasters.For example tragedy in Jilin, China (2005), workers at a chemical factory in the city of Jilin in China made one mistake. They were supposed to shut off a value. But they left it running.


As result, part of the chemical factory exploded. Five people were killed and sixty others were badly hurt in the Jilin factory explosion. Poisonous yellow smoke poured out from factory. More then ten thousand people living nearby had to flee their homes. About 100 tons of poison also leaked into the Songhua River. Water in the city had to be shut off for a four days. People had to drink bottled water. They could not take showers. People were very frightened. Nobody knows how many became ill because of the poison.


What Are Environmental Disaster?



Environmental disaster is a disaster that is due to human activity and should not be confused with natural disasters. In this case, the impact of human's alteration of the ecosystem has leaded widespread and long-lasting consequences. It can include the death of animals, human and plants or severe disruption of human life, possibly requiring migration. Some of environmental disasters are ozone depletion, atomic bombing, toxic and soil spill, pollution and species extinction.



These disasters will affect the natural world. They can make the water unsafe to drink. They can damage the land so that people must move away. Some environmental disasters cause damage that lasts for years. Others cause only short-term damage. Environmental disasters can be very destructive. They may kill or injure hundreds of people own. Environmental disasters may also harm wild animals, plants and other things in the world around us. There are several kinds of environmental disasters. Some of the worst involve spills or leaks of hazardous materials. These disasters usually happen suddenly.


In 2002, ship carrying oil sank off the beach of Spain. About 2 million gallons of oil spilled into the water. The sticky black oil washed onto beaches. It killed birds and other animals. Another case is poison gas leaked out of a factory would happen in India in 1984. People which leaving nearby breathed in the poison. Thousand of them became ill or died. While in 1986, radioactive material leaked out from a nuclear powder plant in Ukraine. About 335,000 people living nearby had to move. The radiation killed some people and made others very sick.



Actually environment disaster is a slow disaster. But some of disaster will suddenly happen like what happen in Spain (2002), India (1984) and Ukraine (1986). Other environmental disaster is happen slowly like as factories may release pollution for years. The pollution may seem harmless. After years of building up, the pollution may reach harmful levels. Show environmental changes can be terrible. The can make people starve to death. People also can be forced to leave home and move to a better place.


Beside that other long lasting consequence is ozone depletion. Scientist believes that a slow environmental disaster is happening right now. Scientist worries about pollution from carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a gas. It goes into the air when we burn fossil fuels. Fossil fuels power cars and trucks. They also bring heat and electricity to homes, schools and business. Carbon dioxide builds up over time. When it builds up, it traps heat into the ground. Others bounce off the ground and go back into space. But carbon dioxide stops the rays from leaving Earth’s atmosphere. It seals in the ray’s heat so it cannot escape. Carbon dioxide is changing Earth’s climate. It is making earth’s climate grow warmer. The idea that earth is getting warmer is known as global warming. Global warming can bring longer summers and milder winters to some parts of Earth.






Natural Disaster

by Kevin Blacker


Darkened clouds, wind and rain.
Left alone with all this pain.
It’s winter here without you.


Landslides always drag me down
Trapped for days, will I be found?

I pray for skies of blue.



Flooded plains within my head
Tornadoes draw near, leave me for dead.
I feel alone without you.



Drought from tears I know not for
I’ve cried for days, I cry no more.
I’ve made mistakes, it’s true

Hurricane waves pound on my shore
I’m drowning on my bedroom floor.
Will we never be together?



This natural bridge from heart to heart
Collapsed in shreds, fallen apart
These seasons last forever.



Natural Disaster And
How It Came

Natural disaster is the consequence of a natural hazard that affects human activities, environment and leads to financial, environment and human loss. Some of natural disasters are tsunami, earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruption, hurricane, flood, epidemic, and drought. A natural hazard is a threat of an event that will have a negative effect on people or the environment. Many natural hazards are related for example earthquakes can result in tsunamis; drought can lead directly to famine and disease. A concrete example of the division between hazard and disaster is that tragedy at San Francisco (1906), earthquake was a disaster. Where as earthquakes are hazards. Hazards are consequently relating to a future occurrence and disasters to past or current occurrences.


In natural disaster it divide by four situation disaster which land movement disaster, water disaster, whether disaster and health and disease. Examples of land movement disaster are earthquake, volcanic eruption and landslide. For our information, earthquake is a sudden shake of the Earth's crust. Earthquakes are caused by the discharge of accumulated along geologic faults. The earthquake has point of origin underground called the "focus”. Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people or wildlife. It is usually the secondary events that they trigger, such as building collapse, fires, tsunamis and volcanoes that are actually the human disaster. While volcano occur when the Earth's plates pull apart causing magma to rise to the surface. Volcanoes can also occur over hotspots and where one plate dives beneath another, forcing magma to rise to the surface.


Categories for water disaster are flood, limnic eruption and tsunami. Actually flood can become environmental disaster from what it happen. If flood are come from human activity it’s not natural disaster so for this flood it happen when Tropical Cyclones happen will can result in extensive flooding and storm surge. A limnic eruption occurs when CO2 suddenly erupts from deep lake water, posing the threat of suffocating wildlife, livestock and humans. Such an eruption may also cause tsunamis in the lake as the rising CO2 displaces water. Scientists believe landslides, volcanic activity, or explosions can trigger such an eruption. Till date, only two limnic eruptions have been observed and recorded. One of them in Cameroon (1984), a limnic eruption in Lake Monoun caused the deaths of 37 nearby residents.


Other categories is whether disaster which contains of phenomenon blizzard, cyclonic storm, drought, hailstorm (are rain drops that have formed together into ice), heat waves, tornadoes and fire. Finally categories are health and disease which contain epidemic, famine and space. For epidemic, it’s an outbreak of a contractible disease that spreads at a rapid rate through a human population. A pandemic is an epidemic whose spread is global. There have been many epidemics throughout history, such as Black Death. In the last hundred years, significant pandemics include Spanish flu (1981), killing an estimated 50 million people worldwide, AIDS epidemic and the new pandemic H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu, 2009). One of disease come from space is solar flare. A solar flare is a phenomenon where the sun suddenly releases a great amount of solar radiation, much more than normal.


5.2.3 How climate changes happen?




The climate has and will always vary for natural reasons. Natural causes of this include fractional changes in solar radiation, volcanic eruptions that can shroud the Earth in dust which reflects the heat from the sun back into space, natural fluctuations in the climate system itself.

However, natural causes can explain only a small part of this warming. The overwhelming majority of scientists agree that it is due to rising concentrations of heat-trapping greenhouse gases in the atmosphere caused by human activities.

Energy from the sun warms the earth's surface and, as the temperature increases, heats are radiated back into the atmosphere as infra-red energy. Some of the energy is absorbed within the atmosphere by 'greenhouse gases'.

The atmosphere acts in a similar way to the walls of a greenhouse, letting in the visible light and absorbing the outgoing infra-red energy, keeping it warm inside. This natural process is called the "greenhouse effect." Without it, the global average temperature on earth would be -18°C, whereas at the moment it is +15°C.


However, human activities are adding greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, to the atmosphere, which are enhancing the natural greenhouse effect and making the world warmer. This man-made extra warming is called the "enhanced" greenhouse effect.

5.2.2 Differences between climate and weather









Climate

Weather

Define

Climate is defined as statistical weather information that describes the variation of weather at a given place for a specified interval.

Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere, and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation

Components

Climate may include precipitation, temperature, humidity, sunshine, wind velocity, phenomena such as fog, frost and hail storms over a long period of time.

Weather includes sunshine, rain, cloud cover, winds, hail, snow, sleet, freezing rain, flooding, blizzards, ice storms, thunderstorms, steady rains from a cold front or warm front, excessive heat, heat waves and more.

Affected by

Latitude, terrain, altitude, ice or snow cover, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents

Density (temperature and moisture) differences

between one place and another

Time frame

Measured over a long period

Measured for short term

Forecast

By aggregates of weather statistics over periods of 30 years

Collecting statistical data

Study

Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences

Meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting.





5.2 Köppen Climate Classification System

*
The Köppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used for classifying the world's climates.

*
Most classification systems used today are based on the one introduced in 1900 by the Russian-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen. Köppen divided the Earth's surface into climatic regions that generally coincided with world patterns of vegetation and soils.

*The Köppen system recognizes five major climate types based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation. Each type is designated by a capital letter.



A

Moist Tropical Climates are known for their high temperatures year round and for their large amount of year round rain.

B

Dry Climates are characterized by little rain and a huge daily temperature range. Two subgroups, S - semiarid or steppe, and W - arid or desert.

C

In Humid Middle Latitude Climates land/water differences play a large part. These climates have warm, dry summers and cool, wet winters.

D

Continental Climates can be found in the interior regions of large land masses. Total precipitation is not very high and seasonal temperatures vary widely.

E

Cold Climates describe this climate type perfectly. These climates are part of areas where permanent ice and tundra are always present. Only about four months of the year have above freezing temperatures.







~example of variety weather and climate~

::bE wiTh uS::