::The Crying Earth::

What have we done to the world. Look what we've done... What about all the peace. That you pledge your only son... What about all the dreams. That you said was yours and mine... Did you ever stop to notice? The crying Earth the weeping shores...

5.1.3 Mechanism for Minimizing Toxic Effects

There is a few mechanisms for minimizing toxic effect such as:

  • Metabolic degradation & excretion eliminate toxins
  • Repair mechanisms mend damage
  • Diet, also, is an important health factor.
  • Toxic chemical exposure: timing, dose, and route of exposure.
  • Characteristics and condition of the target organism also are very influential in determining effects of toxins.
  • Just because something can be detected doesn't mean that it's present in a dangerous form or concentration.

Metabolic Degradation and Excretion
  1. Liver: enzyme systems detoxify and help excretion out of body, can also convert substances into carcinogens
  2. Excretion: bladder and kidney can be exposed to the toxins

Repair Mechanisms
  • DNA, protein, cells all have repair mechanisms to replace worn or damaged parts Tissues with high level of cell growth and replacement can be a site of unregulated growth if under stress (cancer)

Measuring Toxicity

Animal Testing

Most commonly used and widely accepted:
  • Expensive - hundreds of thousands of dollars to test one toxin at low doses
  • Time consuming
  • Often very inhumane
  • Difficult to compare toxicity of unlike chemicals or different species of organisms


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::bE wiTh uS::